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linux下只有rman备份集的异机不同目录恢复

www.someabcd.com  网友分享于:Jun 8, 2018 6:06:17 PM

标签:oracle   rman   异机恢复   

昨天在客户那里做了一次rman异机的恢复,把生产库弄一份给测试库用,总库大概80G,总共花费了2个小时,当时客户的环境是windows 11.2.0.3,今天早晨在linux下重新测试了一下,记录下来供大家参考

环境:

所有操作都是按主机名区分

源库:

主机名  bre1  实例名为bre1  数据文件目录在/u01/app/oradata下

目标库:

主机名 bre2   数据文件准备放在/bre1/oradata下

废话不多说,下面是实际操作步骤

1.在源库创建备份集,并且拷贝到目标库

拷贝的目录可用和原来的备份的时候的目录一致,也可以不一致

备份system表空间rman会自动备份参数文件和控制文件

RMAN> backup database format '/home/oracle/%U.bak';

Starting backup at 21-AUG-2014 10:03:35
using channel ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00001 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/bre1/system01.dbf
input datafile file number=00002 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/bre1/sysaux01.dbf
input datafile file number=00003 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/bre1/undotbs01.dbf
input datafile file number=00005 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/bre1/test.dbf
input datafile file number=00004 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/bre1/users01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 21-AUG-2014 10:03:36
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 21-AUG-2014 10:03:51
piece handle=/home/oracle/03pggb7o_1_1.bak tag=TAG20140821T100336 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:15
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
including current control file in backup set
including current SPFILE in backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 21-AUG-2014 10:03:52
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 21-AUG-2014 10:03:53
piece handle=/home/oracle/04pggb87_1_1.bak tag=TAG20140821T100336 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
Finished backup at 21-AUG-2014 10:03:53

[oracle@bre2 ~]$ scp bre1:/home/oracle/03pggb7o_1_1.bak .
The authenticity of host 'bre1 (192.168.56.45)' can't be established.
RSA key fingerprint is 73:56:4c:3a:01:3f:50:c8:d8:3a:5d:d5:21:00:6a:fe.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added 'bre1,192.168.56.45' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
oracle@bre1's password: 
03pggb7o_1_1.bak                                                                                     100%  336MB  37.3MB/s   00:09    
[oracle@bre2 ~]$ scp bre1:/home/oracle/04pggb87_1_1.bak .
oracle@bre1's password: 
04pggb87_1_1.bak                                                                                     100% 9600KB   9.4MB/s   00:00  


2.还原spfile,使用nomount打开数据库

编辑一个最简单的pfile,只有db_name即可:

[oracle@bre2 dbs]$ vi initbre1.ora
[oracle@bre2 dbs]$ cat initbre1.ora 
db_name=bre1

然后就可以nomount打开数据库了:

SQL> startup nomount;
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area  229683200 bytes
Fixed Size		    2251936 bytes
Variable Size		  171967328 bytes
Database Buffers	   50331648 bytes
Redo Buffers		    5132288 bytes
SQL> 

再使用rman来恢复spfile:

RMAN> restore spfile from '/home/oracle/backup/04pggb87_1_1.bak';

Starting restore at 21-AUG-2014 9:39:31
using target database control file instead of recovery catalog
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=171 device type=DISK

channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring spfile from AUTOBACKUP /home/oracle/backup/04pggb87_1_1.bak
channel ORA_DISK_1: SPFILE restore from AUTOBACKUP complete
Finished restore at 21-AUG-2014 9:39:32

RMAN> 

使用spfile来打理数据库试试

[oracle@bre2 ~]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.4.0 Production on Thu Aug 21 10:08:01 2014

Copyright (c) 1982, 2013, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Connected to an idle instance.

SQL> startup nomount;
ORA-01078: failure in processing system parameters
LRM-00109: could not open parameter file '/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/dbs/initbre1.ora'
SQL> startup nomount;
ORA-01078: failure in processing system parameters
LRM-00109: could not open parameter file '/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/dbs/initbre1.ora'
SQL> startup nomount;
ORA-09925: Unable to create audit trail file
Linux-x86_64 Error: 2: No such file or directory
Additional information: 9925
有很多相关目录没有创建,可以使用strings spfilebre1.ora来查看一下spfile里面的内容,建好相关的目录,并且赋予权限。。这些都搞好后nomount打开数据库不再报错。

3.恢复控制文件

登陆到rman,控制文件还原的时候将还原到参数文件指定的位置,所以参数文件指定的控制文件目录必须存在,否则报错,例如下面一开始我没有创建就报错,后来创建完成就不报错了,如果你想还原到其他地方,可以修改参数文件指定到相应地址。

RMAN> restore controlfile from '/home/oracle/04pggb87_1_1.bak';

Starting restore at 21-AUG-2014 10:26:14
using channel ORA_DISK_1

channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring control file
RMAN-00571: ===========================================================
RMAN-00569: =============== ERROR MESSAGE STACK FOLLOWS ===============
RMAN-00571: ===========================================================
RMAN-03002: failure of restore command at 08/21/2014 10:26:15
ORA-19870: error while restoring backup piece /home/oracle/04pggb87_1_1.bak
ORA-19504: failed to create file "/u01/app/oracle/oradata/bre1/control01.ctl"
ORA-27040: file create error, unable to create file
Linux-x86_64 Error: 2: No such file or directory
Additional information: 1

RMAN> restore controlfile from '/home/oracle/04pggb87_1_1.bak';

Starting restore at 21-AUG-2014 10:26:50
using channel ORA_DISK_1

channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring control file
RMAN-00571: ===========================================================
RMAN-00569: =============== ERROR MESSAGE STACK FOLLOWS ===============
RMAN-00571: ===========================================================
RMAN-03002: failure of restore command at 08/21/2014 10:26:51
ORA-19504: failed to create file "/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/bre1/control02.ctl"
ORA-27040: file create error, unable to create file
Linux-x86_64 Error: 2: No such file or directory
Additional information: 1
ORA-19600: input file is control file  (/u01/app/oracle/oradata/bre1/control01.ctl)
ORA-19601: output file is control file  (/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/bre1/control02.ctl)

RMAN> restore controlfile from '/home/oracle/04pggb87_1_1.bak';

Starting restore at 21-AUG-2014 10:27:24
using channel ORA_DISK_1

channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring control file
channel ORA_DISK_1: restore complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
output file name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/bre1/control01.ctl
output file name=/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/bre1/control02.ctl
Finished restore at 21-AUG-2014 10:27:25

4.mount数据库,注册备份集

重启数据库,直接就可以启动到mount

SQL> startup mount;
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area  835104768 bytes
Fixed Size		    2257840 bytes
Variable Size		  503319632 bytes
Database Buffers	  322961408 bytes
Redo Buffers		    6565888 bytes
Database mounted.
SQL> 

如果此时备份集所在文件目录改变,需要手工catalog注册备份集,这里我们将拷过来的备份文件复制到/home/oracle/backup下,演示一下手工catalog备份集

[oracle@bre2 ~]$ ls
03pggb7o_1_1.bak  04pggb87_1_1.bak  pfile.ora  test
[oracle@bre2 ~]$ mkdir backup
[oracle@bre2 ~]$ mv *.bak backup
[oracle@bre2 ~]$ ls backup
03pggb7o_1_1.bak  04pggb87_1_1.bak

RMAN> catalog backuppiece '/home/oracle/backup/03pggb7o_1_1.bak';

Starting implicit crosscheck backup at 21-AUG-2014 10:32:10
using target database control file instead of recovery catalog
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=10 device type=DISK
Crosschecked 1 objects
Finished implicit crosscheck backup at 21-AUG-2014 10:32:10

Starting implicit crosscheck copy at 21-AUG-2014 10:32:10
using channel ORA_DISK_1
Finished implicit crosscheck copy at 21-AUG-2014 10:32:11

searching for all files in the recovery area
cataloging files...
no files cataloged

cataloged backup piece
backup piece handle=/home/oracle/backup/03pggb7o_1_1.bak RECID=2 STAMP=856175531

RMAN>  catalog backuppiece '/home/oracle/backup/04pggb87_1_1.bak';

cataloged backup piece
backup piece handle=/home/oracle/backup/04pggb87_1_1.bak RECID=3 STAMP=856175550

5.使用set newname将数据文件还原到不同目录

原来的数据文件目录在/u01/admin/oradata下面,我们将数据文件恢复到/bre1/oradata下面,%b的意思是只获取文件名,没有目录信息

[root@bre2 ~]# mkdir -p /bre1/oradata
[root@bre2 ~]# chown -R oracle:oinstall /bre1


[oracle@bre2 ~]$ rman target /

Recovery Manager: Release 11.2.0.4.0 - Production on Thu Aug 21 10:36:10 2014

Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.

connected to target database: BRE1 (DBID=2522432392, not open)

run{
allocate channel ch1 device type disk;
set newname for database to '/bre1/oradata/%b';
restore database;
release channel ch1;
6> }

using target database control file instead of recovery catalog
allocated channel: ch1
channel ch1: SID=396 device type=DISK

executing command: SET NEWNAME

Starting restore at 21-AUG-2014 10:38:03

channel ch1: starting datafile backup set restore
channel ch1: specifying datafile(s) to restore from backup set
channel ch1: restoring datafile 00001 to /bre1/oradata/system01.dbf
channel ch1: restoring datafile 00002 to /bre1/oradata/sysaux01.dbf
channel ch1: restoring datafile 00003 to /bre1/oradata/undotbs01.dbf
channel ch1: restoring datafile 00004 to /bre1/oradata/users01.dbf
channel ch1: restoring datafile 00005 to /bre1/oradata/test.dbf
channel ch1: reading from backup piece /home/oracle/backup/03pggb7o_1_1.bak
channel ch1: piece handle=/home/oracle/backup/03pggb7o_1_1.bak tag=TAG20140821T100336
channel ch1: restored backup piece 1
channel ch1: restore complete, elapsed time: 00:00:45
Finished restore at 21-AUG-2014 10:38:48

released channel: ch1


数据文件都在了:
[root@bre2 ~]# ls -l /bre1/oradata
total 1564468
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 629153792 Aug 21 10:38 sysaux01.dbf
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 734011392 Aug 21 10:38 system01.dbf
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall  20979712 Aug 21 10:38 test.dbf
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 209723392 Aug 21 10:38 undotbs01.dbf
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall   6561792 Aug 21 10:38 users01.dbf

资料上说可以使用switch datafile all来直接修改控制文件中的文件目录,但是我试了一下貌似不行,还是需要在手工rename,下面是我手工修改控制文件中的数据文件目录,先看一下当前的数据文件目录

SQL> select name from v$datafile;

NAME
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/bre1/system01.dbf
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/bre1/sysaux01.dbf
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/bre1/undotbs01.dbf
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/bre1/users01.dbf
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/bre1/test.dbf

SQL> select name from v$tempfile;

NAME
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/bre1/temp01.dbf

SQL> select member from v$logfile;

MEMBER
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/bre1/redo01.log
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/bre1/redo02.log
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/bre1/redo03.log

我自己写了一个拼接sql来将数据文件目录做转换:

select ‘alter database rename file ‘‘‘||name||‘‘‘ to ‘‘/bre1/oradata‘||substr(name,length(name)-INSTR(reverse(name),‘/‘)+1,INSTR(reverse(name),‘/‘))||‘‘‘;‘ from v$datafile
union all
select ‘alter database rename file ‘‘‘||name||‘‘‘ to ‘‘/bre1/oradata‘||substr(name,length(name)-INSTR(reverse(name),‘/‘)+1,INSTR(reverse(name),‘/‘))||‘‘‘;‘ from v$tempfile
union all
select ‘alter database rename file ‘‘‘||member||‘‘‘ to ‘‘/bre1/oradata‘||substr(member,length(member)-INSTR(reverse(member),‘/‘)+1,INSTR(reverse(member),‘/‘))||‘‘‘;‘ from v$logfile
;

select 'alter database rename file '''||name||''' to ''/bre1/oradata'||substr(name,length(name)-INSTR(reverse(name),'/')+1,INSTR(reverse(name),'/'))||''';' from v$datafile
union all
select 'alter database rename file '''||name||''' to ''/bre1/oradata'||substr(name,length(name)-INSTR(reverse(name),'/')+1,INSTR(reverse(name),'/'))||''';' from v$tempfile
union all
select 'alter database rename file '''||member||''' to ''/bre1/oradata'||substr(member,length(member)-INSTR(reverse(member),'/')+1,INSTR(reverse(member),'/'))||''';' from v$logfile
  6  ;

'ALTERDATABASERENAMEFILE'''||NAME||'''TO''/BRE1/ORADATA'||SUBSTR(NAME,LENGTH(NAME)-INSTR(REVERSE(NAME),'/')+1,INSTR(REVERSE(NAME),'/'))||''';'
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
alter database rename file '/bre1/oradata/system01.dbf' to '/bre1/oradata/system01.dbf';
alter database rename file '/bre1/oradata/sysaux01.dbf' to '/bre1/oradata/sysaux01.dbf';
alter database rename file '/bre1/oradata/undotbs01.dbf' to '/bre1/oradata/undotbs01.dbf';
alter database rename file '/bre1/oradata/users01.dbf' to '/bre1/oradata/users01.dbf';
alter database rename file '/bre1/oradata/test.dbf' to '/bre1/oradata/test.dbf';
alter database rename file '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/bre1/temp01.dbf' to '/bre1/oradata/temp01.dbf';
alter database rename file '/bre1/oradata/redo01.log' to '/bre1/oradata/redo01.log';
alter database rename file '/bre1/oradata/redo02.log' to '/bre1/oradata/redo02.log';
alter database rename file '/bre1/oradata/redo03.log' to '/bre1/oradata/redo03.log';


alter database rename file '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/bre1/system01.dbf' to '/bre1/oradata/system01.dbf';
alter database rename file '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/bre1/sysaux01.dbf' to '/bre1/oradata/sysaux01.dbf';
alter database rename file '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/bre1/undotbs01.dbf' to '/bre1/oradata/undotbs01.dbf';
alter database rename file '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/bre1/users01.dbf' to '/bre1/oradata/users01.dbf';
alter database rename file '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/bre1/test.dbf' to '/bre1/oradata/test.dbf';
alter database rename file '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/bre1/redo01.log' to '/bre1/oradata/redo01.log';
alter database rename file '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/bre1/redo02.log' to '/bre1/oradata/redo02.log';

Database altered.

SQL> 
Database altered.

SQL> 
Database altered.

SQL> 
Database altered.

SQL> 
Database altered.
SQL> 
Database altered.

SQL> 
Database altered.

SQL> alter database rename file '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/bre1/redo03.log' to '/bre1/oradata/redo03.log';

Database altered.
rename之后控制文件中的数据文件目录都已经改到了/bre1/oradata下,那么就可以进行恢复了。
6.恢复数据库

我这里是测试就没有恢复什么归档日志,如果是正式生产库,还需要恢复归档日志,可能还需要使用到CATALOG ARCHIVELOG 来注册归档的备份集和在RMAN中使用
RUN

  SET ARCHIVELOG DESTINATION TO ‘/home/oracle‘;
  RESTORE ARCHIVELOG all;       
}    
来还原出归档日志。
或者还可以在controlfile中修改归档目录来恢复。恢复出归档日志之后,就可以进行数据库恢复。

[oracle@bre2 ~]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.4.0 Production on Thu Aug 21 11:16:06 2014

Copyright (c) 1982, 2013, Oracle.  All rights reserved.


Connected to:
Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.4.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options

SQL> recover database using backup controlfile until cancel;
ORA-00279: change 830841 generated at 08/21/2014 10:03:36 needed for thread 1
ORA-00289: suggestion : /arch1_42_851018056.dbf
ORA-00280: change 830841 for thread 1 is in sequence #42


Specify log: {<RET>=suggested | filename | AUTO | CANCEL}
cancel
Media recovery cancelled.
SQL> alter database open resetlogs;

Database altered.
open 过程中可能会遇到ora-00392错误,
解决办法:
使用SQL> alter database clear logfile group 2;
到此恢复成功!

总结:
主要的难点是需要对rman比较熟悉,需要使用语句修改控制文件中的文件位置,否则会报错找不到相关文件。
如果备份集的目录改变了,需要手工catalog注册备份集到控制文件,并且rename file。

linux下只有rman备份集的异机不同目录恢复,布布扣,bubuko.com

linux下只有rman备份集的异机不同目录恢复

标签:oracle   rman   异机恢复   

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